Also known as the queen of 19th century science, is a pioneering science writer and scientist whose work in the field of astronomy led to the discovery of Neptune.
The first scientist to isolate polonium and radium; she established the nature of radiation and beta rays. Her work led to the development of the X-ray and research into atomic particles.
British chemist Rosalind Franklin is best known for her role in the discovery of the structure of DNA, and for her pioneering use of X-ray diffraction.
Barbara McClintock made a number of ground-breaking discoveries in genetics. She demonstrated the phenomenon of chromosomal crossover, which increases genetic variation in species. She also discovered mobile genetic elements, or "jumping genes," (which won her the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine) - showed that genes are responsible for switching the physical traits of an organism on or off.
Rita Levi-Montalcini was honoured for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with colleague Stanley Cohen) for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF) — which offered possible treatments for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, infertility and cancer.
Chien-Shiung Wu is a nuclear physicist, also known as "the First Lady of Physics," contributed to the Manhattan Project - helping develop the process for separating uranium metal into U-235 and U-238 isotopes by gaseous diffusion. She made history with an experiment that disproved the hypothetical law of conservation of parity.
Dr. Mae Jemison is the first African-American woman in space. By the time she was thirty-one Dr. Jemison had received a double-major in Chemical Engineering and African-American studies and had served as a doctor in the Peace Corps in Liberia and Sierra Leone. She had also made history when she was selected from a pool of 2,000 applicants and became the first black woman selected to be an astronaut by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
Dame Jane Goodall created one of the most trailblazing studies of primates in modern times. As a primatologist and anthropologist, she is considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, and is best known for her over 55-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees.
Jennifer Doudna led the discovery of the revolutionary gene-editing tool called Crispr. The technology has the potential to eradicate previously incurable diseases, but also poses ethical questions about the possible unintended consequences of overwriting the human genome.